Peculiarities of cardiac intervalography and psychological state of young people at different risk of arterial hypertension development state of students with different risk of hypertension
Introduction. Nowadays, the problem of students’ adaptation to the educational process proves to be urgent, cardiovascular diseases ranking first among adaptation disorders. Early development of arterial hypertension (AH) is of peculiar concern. However, the mechanisms of adaptation to the educational process as well as the causes accounting for the development of AH in young people have not been studied sufficiently so far.
The objective is to find out the peculiarities of cardiac intervalography and psychological state of virtually healthy young males and females at different risk of AH development.
Materials and methods. 150 boys and 173 girls aged 16 to 21 years, all of them were students of the medical university, were examined. Measurement of the arterial pressure (AP) in the lying position was followed by the calculation of the mean hemodynamic pressure. The level above 90 mmHg pointed at high risk of AH development, whereas 90 mmHg and lower suggested its insignificant probability. Cardiac activity of autonomous regulation was estimated at the starting point and on the sixth minute of the postural test according to R.M.Baevsky method. The “BHC-Микро” device (Russia) was used. Psychological characteristics were studied by FPI questionnaire (form B). Parametric methods of statistical analysis were used. The sampling contingent was formed by means of stratified randomization.
Results. It was found that in the lying position the activity of the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) prevailed in boys and girls at high risk of AH development compared to those with the lower one. Adequate regulatory mechanisms were activated in orthostasis, specifically, the tone of the ANS sympathetic part increased. Students at low risk of AH development revealed enhanced intensity of regulatory mechanisms due to activation of both ANS parts. This appears to be adequate for the given group and indicates larger adaptation reserves, since all values are comparable with those in the group of students at high risk of AH development. The tone of the ANS parasympathetic part was found to increase significantly in the female students at low risk of AH development. Meanwhile, reduced tone of the ANS sympathetic part was evident in the girls at high risk of AH development.
If compared to the boys, more intensive starting activity of the ANS sympathetic part at low risk of AH development alongside with the reduced activity at high risk of AH development was noted in the girls in orthostasis. So, the sex difference of ANS tone persisting at low risk of AH development was found to be vanishing at the growing risk of the disease. The latter may be attributed to the aggravated stress state in the given group of youths as well as activated adrenal cortex, thus contributing to the increased risk of AH development. FPI testing of the psychological state found no more than sex difference between the groups at different risk of AH development.
Conclusions. 1. In the lying position, cardiac intervalographic findings revealed prevailing activity of the ANS sympathetic part in boys and girls at high risk of AH development. 2. In orthostasis, larger adaptation reserves were noted in the students at low risk of AH development compared to those at high risk. 3. At high risk of AH development, the sex difference in the autonomous support of the cardiac rhythm was found to be vanishing alongside with the growing activity of the sympathetic part, which predisposes AH development. 4. FPI testing of the psychological state found no difference between the groups at different risk of AH development.
Key words: hypertension, cardiointervalography, psychological condition, students.
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