Physiological and potentially pathological ECG changes in swimmers of different sports qualifications
Keywords:swimmers, ECG, IRBBB, SEVR, CLC syndrome, T-infantile, changes in the end part of the ventricular complex
The purpose of the work. To study the indicators of bioelectric myocardial activity in swimmers for a distance from 100 to 400 meters of different sports qualifications in the preparatory period of the training process.
Materials and methods. At the beginning of the preparatory period, 257 sportsmen aged from 11 to 29 years old (average age 15.4 ± 0.18 years) who were engaged in swimming and their competition distance was from 100 to 400 meters with qualification from category III to MMS were examined.
The bioelectric activity of the myocardium was studied using diagnostic automated complex “Cardio+”. For differential diagnostics, sportsmen with right atrial ectopic rhythm, wandering pacemaker (WP) and changes in the end part of the ventricular complex were subjected to an exercise tolerance test on a bicycle ergometer using the method of submaximal exercise PWC170 test and sportsmen with CLC syndrome and left anterior fascicular block – to echocardiography using a device My Lab 7 (Italy).
Results. The MS-MMS swimmers differ from the CMS-1 qualification swimmers by less number of individuals with right atrial ectopic rhythm and early repolarization syndrome (ERS); they are more likely to be diagnosed with bradycardia, high ECG voltage and changes in the end part of the ventricular complex, but CLC syndrome is less frequently, compared with the swimmers of II–III qualification category. Swimmers of CMS I qualification are more often diagnosed with high ECG voltage, ERS, but the number of persons with CLC syndrome and T-infantile is less among them in comparison with the sportsmen of II–III category.
Conclusions. After physical activity in the form of a submaximal exercise PWC170 test, sportsmen with right atrial ectopic rhythm and WP demonstrated sinus rhythm restoration, and sportsmen with changes in the end part of the ECG ventricular complex showed ECG normalization. Echocardiography revealed neither heart dilatation no hypertrophy in the sportsmen with CLC syndrome and left anterior fascicular block, and the presence of incomplete right bundle branch block and ERS should be considered as the ECG features in this category of sportsmen.
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