Attention as the basic component of cognitive functions of the brain and its features in children with bronchial asthma

Authors

  • S. M. Nedelska Zaporizhzhia State Medical University, Ukraine,
  • О. Yu. Akulova Zaporizhzhia State Medical University, Ukraine,
  • Т. Ye. Shumna Zaporizhzhia State Medical University, Ukraine,

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14739/2310-1210.2020.2.200614

Keywords:

attention, cognitive functions, cognitive impairment, bronchial asthma, children, Bourdon test

Abstract

 

Purpose. To study the characteristics of attention in children with bronchial asthma (BA) taking into account their sex differences, depending on the course, duration and control of the disease.

Materials and methods. A psychological test (the Bourdon correction test) was performed in 101 children (71 boys and 30 girls) with BA and 30 practically healthy children (17 boys and 13 girls) aged 10–17 years who represented a control group. The test results were evaluated by the indicator S (sustained attention), calculated by the formula 0,5 × N – 2,8 × n/t, where N – the total number of characters viewed by the child in 150 seconds; n – the number of errors; t – reaction time (150 seconds). The results obtained were processed using the software package Statistica for Windows 13 (StatSoft Inc., № JPZ804I382130ARCN10-J).

Results. It has been determined that BA patients demonstrated a significantly higher number of errors than healthy children: 10.1 ± 0.7 versus 7.6 ± 1.0, indicating a decrease in the sustained attention. It has been established that the uncontrolled course of the disease negatively affected the level of S that was lower than in healthy children (1.17 ± 0.05 vs. 1.32 ± 0.06) due to a decrease in attentional performance (404 ± 17 against 439 ± 19). Exacerbation and BA duration of more than 5 years led to a decrease in the level of S compared with the control group (1.24 ± 0.07 vs. 1.32 ± 0.06, P < 0.05). Depending on sex, the S score was lower in boys with BA than that in girls with BA and amounted to 1.23 ± 0.03 vs 1.39 ± 0.04 (P < 0.05) due to low attention span. However, in girls with a controlled course of BA, the S indicator even exceeded the similar indicator of healthy girls (1.52 ± 0.07 and 1.37 ± 0.09).

Conclusions. Bronchial asthma children, especially boys with uncontrolled course, exacerbation and disease duration of more than 5 years, displayed attention problems as a reduction in attention span and sustained attention that should be considered as moderate manifestations of cognitive impairments. Therefore, self-management education in bronchial asthma children needs to take into account the reduced attentional indicators, and medical correction of an underlying disease should be accompanied by social and psychological support for patients.

 

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Nedelska SM, Akulova ОY, Shumna ТY. Attention as the basic component of cognitive functions of the brain and its features in children with bronchial asthma. Zaporozhye Medical Journal [Internet]. 2020Apr.13 [cited 2024Jul.17];22(2). Available from: http://zmj.zsmu.edu.ua/article/view/200614

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Original research