The pattern of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion in patients with secondary edematous breast cancer
Keywords:breast cancer, disease progression, cytokines
Secondary edematous breast cancer (SEBC), T4b, has a poor prognosis.
The aim of this study is to examine the balance in serum levels of pro-inflammatory (TNFά, IL-8) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4) cytokines in patients with SEBC before special treatment.
Materials and methods. A total of 87 patients with breast cancer (BC) were examined before treatment: 42 patients with SEBC in T4bN0-3M0 stage and 45 BC patients in T3-4N1-3M0 stage without edema. The control group consisted of 15 patients with fibroadenomas. The serum levels of cytokines (IL-4, IL-8, TNFά) in the patients was determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results. In the SEBC patients as compared to the patients without cancer, the serum pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-8, TNFά) levels were significantly increased and the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4) level was slightly increased in 22 %. In BC without edema, an imbalance was noted in favor of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but in SEBC it was more pronounced (31.6 versus 12.4 and 5.6 versus 3.2, respectively).
Conclusions. In the majority of SEBC patients, there is an imbalance in the cytokine profile in favor of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8, TNFά). SEBC patients with elevated levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines before treatment are the highest risk group of tumor progression and metastasis. Inhibition of the IL-8 effects or related CXC chemokines, TNFά, and others may have important consequences for the systemic treatment of SEBC.
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