The efficacy of diuretics in complex treatment of patients with hypertension according to the Gly460Trp polymorphism of the α-adducin gene
Keywords:hypertension, genetic polymorphism, genotyping, therapy
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of thiazide diuretics on blood pressure (BP) depending on Gly460Trp ADD1 gene polymorphism in arterial hypertension (AH) patients of the Ukrainian population in order to predict their individual treatment
Material and methods. The study included 232 persons: 120 patients with verified stage II AH and 112 healthy individuals. Restriction fragment length polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) was used to detect genotype (the Gly460Trp-polymorphic locus of the ADD1 gene). The patients received standard therapy, which included ACE inhibitor – ramipril 5 mg, calcium channel antagonist – amlodipine 5 mg, statin – atorvastatin 20 mg, acetylsalicylic acid 75 mg. The patients were randomized into two groups: group I (60 persons) additionally taking treatment with 1.5 mg of indapamide retard and group II (60 persons) – with 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide. The dynamic reduction of blood pressure has been assessed every 4 weeks for 2 months.
Results. Among 120 patients with AH, 91 persons (75.8 %) were homozygous for the G allele (GG), 26 persons (21.7 %) – heterozygous (GT) and 3 persons (2.5 %) – homozygous for the T allele (TT), while the G allele frequency in patients with hypertension was 0.87, and the T allele – 0.13. 98 healthy individuals (87.5 %) were homozygous for the G allele, 13 individuals (11.6 %) were heterozygous, and 1 person (0.9 %) was homozygous for the T allele. The carrier frequency of the G and T alleles was 0.93 and 0.07, respectively. Allelic distribution indicated the predominance of the G allele carriers by Gly460Trp polymorphism of the ADD1 gene among the Ukrainian population, regardless of whether AH symptoms were present. It is noteworthy that the number of the T allele carriers was 2 times large among symptomatic patients than that among healthy individuals. In patients with the T allele, the hypotensive efficacy of indapamide was almost 3 times higher than that in patients with the G allele. The antihypertensive effect of hydrochlorothiazide in patients with the GT and TT genotypes was 2 times greater than that in the GG genotype carriers depending on the presence of the T allele G460T polymorphism of ADD1 gene in the genotype.
Conclusions. Allelic distribution indicates the predominance of the G allele carriers by Gly460Trp ADD1 gene polymorphism among the Ukrainian population, regardless of whether AH symptoms are present. Among patients with AH, the accumulation of the T allele G460T polymorphic marker of the α-adducin gene is 2 times more than that in healthy individuals. Patients carrying the T allele demonstrate 2 times higher hypotensive efficacy of indapamide compared with hydrochlorothiazide.
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