Features of comorbid pathology spectrum and age structure of oxygen-dependent patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) depending on outcomes of the disease
The aim was to analyze spectrum of comorbid pathology and age structure of oxygen-dependent patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) depending on outcomes of the disease.
Materials and methods. The study included 85 oxygen-dependent patients with severe COVID-19. The patients were divided into groups: I – 70 patients with recovery; II – 15 patients in whom the disease was fatal. Statistical data processing was performed in the program Statistica for Windows 13 (StatSoft Inc., No. JPZ804I382130ARCN10-J).
Results. Among the patients with fatal outcomes of the disease, elderly and senile were dominated – 93.3 % (14 of 15) versus 67.1 % (47 of 70) among patients who recovered (P < 0.05). Analysis of comorbid pathology structure in oxygen-dependent patients with severe COVID-19 showed that patients who died more often had hypertension (93.3 % vs. 30.0 %, P < 0.001), postinfarction cardiosclerosis (26.7 % vs. 2.9 %, P < 0.001), rhythm disturbance as persistent atrial fibrillation (20.0 % vs. 1.4 %, P < 0.01) as compared to those who survived. The patients of group II were more commonly diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (20.0 % vs. 4.3 %, P < 0.05) as the comorbid pathology. The presence of ischemic stroke in COVID-19 infection influenced the disease outcome (20.0 % vs. 4.3 %, P < 0.05). Fatal outcomes in the patients with COVID-19 were associated with a combination of 3 or more comorbid conditions in 46.7 % versus 17.4 % among oxygen-dependent survivors with severe disease (P < 0.01).
Conclusions. Elderly and senile oxygen-dependent patients are more likely to die from severe COVID-19 (P < 0.05). Comorbid hypertension, postinfarction cardiosclerosis, arrhythmia in the form of persistent atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease and ischemic stroke or the combination of 3 or more comorbid conditions listed are more common among patients with COVID-19 who died (P < 0.05) as compared to survivors.
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