Effect of long-term training on heart rate variability, central hemodynamics and physical working capacity in female swimmers with different sports qualifications

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14739/2310-1210.2021.5.237403

Keywords:

swimming, female, athletes, correlation

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the indices of heart rate variability, central hemodynamics and physical working capacity in female swimmers with different sports qualifications.

Materials and methods. The indices of heart rate variability (HRV), central hemodynamics (CH) and physical development (PD) were studied in 44 female swimmers (mean age 15.00 ± 0.36 years, swimming experience – 7.40 ± 0.35 years) depending on their sports qualifications (MSIC, MS, CMS, first- and second-class athletes). To analyze the autonomic regulation of cardiac activity, power spectral and time-domain indices of HRV were used. CH were examined by the method of automated tetrapolar rheography according to W. Kubiček et al. (1970) in Y. T. Pushkar’s et al. modification (1970). Physical working capacity was measured according to the generally accepted technique on a cycling ergometer using the PWC170 submaximal test. The functional state index (FSI) was calculated using the formula patented by authors.

Results. Significant differences were found between the indices of HRV, CH and PD in female swimmers with different qualifications. Thus, in the athletes with the MSIC–MS sports qualifications, heart rate was 61.0 ± 3.8 bpm, cardiac index (CI) – 2.978 ± 0.098 L·min-1·m-2 (there was a trend towards the eukinetic type of hemodynamics (TH)), stress index (SI) – 51.16 ± 12.66 relative units (r.u.), PWC170/kg – 16.98 ± 1.22 kgm·min-1·kg-1, FSI – 6.511 ± 0.422 r.u. A decrease in heart rate among them was correlated with a decrease in SI, and an increase in Mo – with a decrease in CI. In female CMS swimmers, heart rate was 61.37 ± 2.83 beats/min-1, CI – 3.021 ± 0.112 l -1min -1·m -2 , a trend towards the predominantly eukinetic TH, SI – 53.73 ± 9.41 r.u., PWC170 /kg– 14.66 ± 0.683 kgm·min-1·kg -1, FSI – 5.683 ± 0.324 r.u. Reduced values of SI and CI were associated with increased values of Mo and PWC170/kg. In first- and second-class female swimmers, heart rate was 63.05 ± 2.22 beats/min, SI – 50.62 ± 6.4 r.u. This group tended to be eytonic and eukinetic. The mean value of the PWC170/kg was 14.19 ± 0.589 kgm·min-1·kg-1 and FSI – 5.953 ± 0.337 r.u. Correlation analysis confirmed the relationship between the decrease in heart rate and CI and the increase in Mo and PWC170/kg.

Conclusions. Long-term training in female swimmers at the distance of 50 to 200 meters is accompanied by the significant increase in the PWC170/kg values with qualification improving, 14.19 ± 0.589 kgm·min-1·kg-1, 14.66 ± 0.683 kgm·min-1·kg-1; 16.98 ± 1.22 kgm·min-1·kg-1, respectively, improvements in HRV (decrease in stress index and increase in Mo) and decrease in CI.

Author Biographies

Ye. L. Mykhaliuk, Zaporizhzhia State Medical University, Ukraine

MD, PhD, DSc, Professor, Head of the Department of Physical Rehabilitation, Sports Medicine, Physical Education and Health

V. V. Syvolap, Zaporizhzhia State Medical University, Ukraine

MD, PhD, DSc, Professor, Head of the Department of Propedeutic of Internal Medicine, Radiation Diagnostic and Radiation Therapy

Ye. Yu. Horokhovskyi, Zaporizhzhia National University, Ukraine

PhD, Associate Professor of the Department of General and Applied Ecology and Zoology

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Published

2021-10-01

How to Cite

1.
Mykhaliuk YL, Syvolap VV, Horokhovskyi YY. Effect of long-term training on heart rate variability, central hemodynamics and physical working capacity in female swimmers with different sports qualifications. Zaporozhye Medical Journal [Internet]. 2021Oct.1 [cited 2024Jul.21];23(5). Available from: http://zmj.zsmu.edu.ua/article/view/237403

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Original research