Treatment methods for peripheral nerve injuries (a literature review)

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14739/2310-1210.2023.4.273073

Keywords:

mesenchymal stem cells, injury, peripheral nerve

Abstract

Aim: to analyze modern professional literature and summarize data on treatment methods for peripheral nerve injuries, taking into account the mechanisms of positive effects.

The article presents an overview of possible methods for treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, fundamental classifications of peripheral nerve injuries, their differences are considered, pathophysiological mechanisms and the probability of spontaneous recovery depending on the degree of injury, general principles and conditions for successful regeneration of the peripheral nerve. Options, combinations, advantages and disadvantages of such surgical methods for peripheral nerve injury treatment as neurorrhaphy, autotransplantation and allotransplantation are described in detail, such terms as “small”, “large” and “critical” gaps between the nerve stumps are specified. Classifications and characteristics of conduits are described, types of synthetic conduits are considered. The use of drugs, Schwann cells, growth and neurotrophic factors, neural, embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells of various origins, exosomes of mesenchymal stem cells in the so-called “stem cell-free therapy” in treating this pathology is mentioned. Genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells, optokinetics are also noted, such physical methods for peripheral nerve injury treatment as short-term low-frequency electrical stimulation of the nerve, magnetic stimulation, low-intensity ultrasound, photobiomodulation therapy, photochemical bonding are discussed, indicating some mechanisms of their positive effects.

Conclusions. Improving the quality of life and reducing the degree of disability in patients with injuries of the main nerve trunks depends on the combined use of a number of surgical, bioengineering and regenerative technologies. These involve the restoration of the anatomical continuity of the nerve, including through the use of natural or artificial elements, cellular technologies and the management of regenerative processes. Therefore, every time, a surgeon is facing a major challenge to create a combination of various means from the indicated basic components for the treatment of nerve damage in managing a particular patient. However, such a treatment approach requires proper competences of surgeons as well as specific material and technical bases in order to bring down the level of social tension in patients with injuries of the main nerve trunks.

Author Biographies

N. M. Nevmerzhytska, Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine

MD, Assistant of the Department of Histology and Embryology

L. M. Yaremenko, Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine

MD, PhD, DSc, Professor of the Department of Histology and Embryology

S. M. Chuhray, Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine

MD, PhD, Associate Professor of the Department of Histology and Embryology

O. M. Grabovyi, Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine

MD, PhD, DSc, Professor of the Department of Histology and Embryology

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Published

2023-07-20

How to Cite

1.
Nevmerzhytska NM, Yaremenko LM, Chuhray SM, Grabovyi OM. Treatment methods for peripheral nerve injuries (a literature review). Zaporozhye Medical Journal [Internet]. 2023Jul.20 [cited 2024May20];25(4):365-9. Available from: http://zmj.zsmu.edu.ua/article/view/273073