Vitamin D status and physical performance, muscular strength and mass in older adults with sarcopenia
Keywords:vitamin D, sarcopenia, muscle strength, dynamometer, organ weight, muscle function, walking
The purpose of the study: to assess the level of vitamin D in older adults (age ≥60 years) with sarcopenia. To analyze the relationship between concentration of 25(OH)D and muscular strength, muscle mass, physical activity and markers of low grade inflammation in patients with sarcopenia.
Material and methods. 76 persons aged 60 to 88 years old were examined. Muscular strength was estimated using grip strength. Physical performance was studied as a gait speed on distance of4 m. Muscle mass was detected by calf circumference (CC) measurement – cut-off point less than35 cm in men and less than33 cm in women estimated for muscle mass insufficiency. Severe sarcopenia was established in case of decrease in all three parameters. Vitamin D concentration was defined as a 25(OH)D level.
Results. After the examination, patients were divided into 2 groups according to the severity of sarcopenia. Among 76 examined patients, signs of severe sarcopenia were diagnosed in 36 cases (47.4 %), older persons (>75 years) prevailed in this group (P = 0.002). Patients with severe sarcopenia had a significantly lower 25(OH)D level (41.1 ± 2.74 nmol/L vs 51.7 ± 2.49 nmol/L, P = 0.005), they were more frequently recognized with obesity, and had significantly lower results in grip strength, muscle mass and gait speed simultaneously with higher level of subclinical inflammation. A significant positive correlation between the level of 25(OH)D and the results of dynamometry, CC, gait speed and significant reverse correlation with the levels of CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α (P < 0.05) was found. Patients with the most pronounced hypovitaminosis D (22.4–30.4 nmol/L) more frequently showed a severe sarcopenia and the lowest rates of muscle strength, mass and function, and the highest level of subclinical inflammation comparing to the patients with 25(OH)D level higher than 61.2 nmol/L.
Conclusions. Severe sarcopenia was detected in 47.4 %, it was registered more frequently in older adults (≥75 years) and patients with obesity. Sarcopenia was associated with hypovitaminosis D and subclinical inflammation. Patients with severe sarcopenia had more pronounced 25(OH)D deficiency. The vitamin D concentration was correlated with indicators of muscular strength and mass, physical activity, as well as markers of subclinical inflammation.
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