DOI: https://doi.org/10.14739/2310-1210.2020.4.208402

Роль мутаций гена PIK3CA в развитии рака молочной железы (обзор литературы)

A. O. Pryvalova, I. O. Vynnychenko, V. Yu. Harbuzova, O. I. Vynnychenko, Yu. V. Moskalenko

Аннотация


 

Сегодня рак молочной железы занимает лидирующие позиции в структуре заболеваемости и смертности среди женщин Украины и всего мира. Позднее выявление заболевания негативно влияет на прогноз. Поскольку для данной патологии характерен широкий спектр генных мутаций, связь молекулярно-генетических особенностей опухоли с прогностическими и клиническими характеристиками рака молочной железы является крайне актуальным вопросом. Сигнальный каскад PI3K/Akt – один из ключевых внутриклеточных сигнальных путей, связанных с контролем пролиферации клеток и регуляцией функций потенциального онкогена протеинкиназы B/Akt. Он может подавлять апоптоз при многих типах рака, способствуя выживанию опухолевых клеток, а мутации и амплификация компонентов каскада PI3K/Akt являются причиной злокачественной трансформации клеток различного происхождения. Ген PIK3CA является одним из онкогенов, соматические мутации в котором играют важную роль в патогенезе и прогрессии рака молочной железы. Он кодирует p110-α, каталитическую субъединицу фосфатидилинозитол-3-киназы-α. Наиболее частая мутация в гене PIK3CA – H1047R.

Выводы. Данные многочисленных исследований указывают на то, что мутации гена PIK3CA у больных раком молочной железы имеют потенциал, чтобы стать клинически важным биомаркером для улучшения диагностики заболевания и разработки индивидуализированной таргетной терапии. В данном обзоре литературы рассмотрены молекулярные механизмы активации сигнального каскада PI3K и роль мутаций гена PIK3CA в развитии рака молочной железы.

 


Ключевые слова


рак молочной железы; соматические мутации; ген PIK3CA; сигнальный каскад PI3K/Akt

Полный текст:

PDF (Українська)

Литература


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