Influence of drug addiction on oral pathology and peculiarities of dental care for drug addicts (literature review)
Keywords:drug addicts, dental caries, dental treatment
The results of the analysis of drug abuse incidence in 2018–2019 indicate that the situation has worsened and the incidence of drug addiction in Ukraine tends to increase. Drug abuse leads to a large number of negative changes in various systems and organs of the body (nephropathy, respiratory diseases, liver cirrhosis, diseases of the circulatory system (infectious endocarditis), surgical pathology (necrotizing fasciitis), hepatitis, as well as to mental and behavioral disorders.
Аim. Grounding on the analysis of literature sources, to investigate the influence of drug abuse and drug-influenced lifestyle on oral cavity pathology and the peculiarities of dental care for drug addicts.
Among dental diseases in drug addicts, caries and non-carious lesions of the hard tissues of the teeth account for the largest share. Modern literature describes studies showing that the carious process in the hard tissues of the teeth of addicted patients develops very rapidly, often affecting the cariesimmune areas. In drug addicted patients, significant changes in the composition of the oral fluid are observed, in particular, imbalance of macro- and microelements, enzyme activity. Scientists have connected changes in the content of calcium in the oral fluid of drug-addicted patients both with its release from the crystal lattice of hard tissues of teeth during the development of numerous carious cavities, and with impaired absorption. One of the determining factors for the occurrence of hard tissue diseases of the teeth and other organs and tissues, is insufficient oral hygiene in drug addicted patients. A study of the dental status of drug addicted patients who have been taking drugs for more than 5 years, once or twice a day, indicates a significant prevalence of caries in this group of patients and a high index of DMFT, low hygiene, which is indicated by high OHI-S.
The general principles of dental treatment are described in the literature, in particular treatment regimens of periodontal diseases in drug addicts. However, there is insufficient amount of information regarding the stages and features of the treatment of hard dental tissue diseases in these patients.
Conclusions. The study of the negative impact of drugs on dental status is necessary for quality treatment and prevention of dental diseases in addicted patients. Providing dental care to drug addicts should be based on determining the optimal time and establishing good communication, both with the drug addict and with his family.
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