Association between H-type arterial hypertension and vascular stiffness (a pilot study)
Keywords:homocysteine, hypertension, arterial stiffness
Increased arterial stiffness is an important determinant of cardiovascular risk. Elevated total homocysteine (HC) levels appeared to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To date, clinical studies on the relationship between HC and pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessment have shown conflicting results.
Aim. To estimate the prevalence of hyperhomocystinemia (HHc) among patients with mild to moderate arterial hypertension and the effect of HHc on the vascular wall stiffness.
Materials and methods. Our study was carried out as a part of the HYPSTER study in Ukraine. The study included 40 patients with I and II degree of arterial hypertension (AH) (average office systolic blood pressure (SBP)/diastolic (DBP) – 155.88/92.60 ± 1.63/1.43 mm Hg), heart rate – 71.40 ± 1.29 beats/min. The average age of the patients was 55.85 ± 2.09 (26–74) years. Patients with HC levels ≥10 μmol/l were defined as patients with H-type AH (HHc). Arterial stiffness was determined by PWV.
Results. We found that at the beginning of the study, 75 % (30 patients with mild and moderate hypertension) had H-type hypertension with an increased level of HC. Patients with H-type AH and AH patients without HHc did not differ in age and AH duration. At the same time, patients with H-type AH had higher body weights and BMI. Office SBP in patients with H-type hypertension was higher compared to patients without HHc (156.45 ± 1.04 mm Hg vs. 152.55 ± 1.41 mm Hg at the beginning (P < 0.05) and 130.65 ± 0.96 mm Hg vs. 126.97 ± 1.08 mm Hg after 6 months (P < 0.05)) of treatment, respectively. BMI in H-type AH was 30.72 ± 0,39 kg/m2 vs. 28.34 ± 0.69 kg/m2 without HHc (P < 0.05) at the beginning of the study. It was difficult to achieve target levels of BP in the patients with H-type hypertension during the treatment and they had high initial blood pressure values. In contrast to the patients without HHc, H-type AH patients had a more pronounced degree of insulin resistance (according to the HOMA index), lower GFR both at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. According to ambulatory BP monitoring, H-type AH patients presented with a significantly higher SBP level before starting the treatment compared to those with AH without HHc. The regression analysis revealed an association between HC and PWVel, regardless of the degree of BP reduction (PWVel (6 months), m/s, β = 0.307, P = 0.001).
Conclusions. Hyperhomocystinemia was observed in 75 % of patients with arterial hypertension. Homocysteine levels were associated with vascular stiffness, regardless of the reduction in blood pressure level.
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