Gender features of changes in clinical and laboratory indicators in patients with acute Q-myocardial infarction complicated by acute heart failure and hyperglycemia on admission
Keywords:myocardial infarction, heart failure, patient gender, hyperglycemia, glycemic profile, lipid profile
The aim was to determine the gender characteristics of changes in the levels of heart failure markers, neurohumoral stress and blood biochemical parameters in patients with acute Q-myocardial infarction (Q-MI) complicated by acute heart failure (AHF) and hyperglycemia (HG) on admission.
Materials and methods. The study involved 84 patients with Q-MI complicated by AHF and HG on admission without a history of diabetes. The average age was 67.00 ± 1.34 years (M ± m). The patients were divided into 2 groups based on gender. Male patients made up the 1 group (n = 52), the mean age was 63.00 ± 1.56 years (M ± m). Group 2 (n = 32) included female patients, the mean age was 78.00 ± 1.81 years. The patients underwent measurements of admission blood glucose level, average glycemia during the first day, glycemic profile (GP) variability, the level of copeptin, NTproBNP, insulin, lipid profile, coagulogram, blood electrolytes, and HOMA index was calculated. On the 12th day, the patients were further examined in order to determine the cause of the HG development.
Results. Men had a significantly higher level of standard deviation of HP by 33 %, and average glycemia during the first day by 14 %. There was a tendency towards higher levels of insulin and HOMA-index in male patients compared with women (2.2 times and 1.95 times, respectively). In women, the level of copeptin on day 12 was significantly higher than in men by 2.14 times, and NTproBNP by 2.09 times. In men, there was a tendency towards a decrease in these indicators during the acute period of Q-MI, and the levels of markers increased on the 12th day in women. Troponin I levels in male patients was 2 times higher compared to those in women, but not significantly. No significant differences were found in terms of coagulogram indicators. In women, the level of total cholesterol (TC) on day 1 exceeded that in men by 14 %, on day 12 – by 7 %, the level of low density lipoproteins (LDL) on day 1 – by 18 %, on day 12 – by 17 %. In a dynamic follow-up, the level of TC in men significantly decreased by 10 % (P = 0.002), and in women by 16 % (P < 0.001). The LDL level in men decreased by 17 % (P < 0.001), and in women by 18 % (P < 0.001).
Conclusions. The men with acute Q-MI complicated by AHF and HG on admission had significantly higher mean levels of glycemia (by 14 %) and standard deviation of HF during the first day of treatment (by 33 %) as compared to women, and also they showed the tendency to higher levels of troponin I, insulin and HOMA index. Female patients with acute Q-MI complicated by AHF and HG on admission, were found to have significantly higher levels of copeptin (2.14 times) and NTproBNP (2.09 times) on day 12, higher levels of TC and LDL on day 1 (GC by 14 %, LDL by 18 %) and on day 12 (GC by 7 %, LDL by 17 %), but they had better dynamics of the decrease in lipid profile indicators during treatment compared with that in men. Coagulogram indices did not differ significantly depending on the patient gender.
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