The impact of chronic heart failure on heart remodeling in patients with atrial fibrillation
Keywords:chronic heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cardial remodeling, systolic function
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic heart failure (CHF) often coexist due to common pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors. However, the effect of CHF on heart remodeling in patients with permanent AF has been insufficiently studied.
The aim: to study the influence of CHF on changes in structural and geometric parameters and diastolic function of the heart in patients with permanent AF.
Materials and methods. The study included 100 patients (men – 60 % (n = 60); women – 40 % (n = 40)) with CHF of ischemic origin and AF, stage II AB, NYHA II-IV FC, and 16 coronary heart disease patients (men – 62.5 % (n = 10), women – 37.5 % (n = 6)) with AF without signs of CHF. Patients were comparable in age (P = 0.267), height (p = 0.406), weight (P = 0.518), body surface area (P = 0.388). Doppler echocardiography was performed on the device Esaote MyLab Eight (Italy) according to standard methods.
Results. Patients with AF and signs of CHF were dominated by individuals with eccentric hypertrophy (49 % vs. 19 %; P = 0.0270), and patients with AF without signs of CHF – with eccentric remodeling (0 % vs. 25 %; P = 0.0001). Patients with AF and signs of CHF had significantly higher systolic pressure in the pulmonary artery (54.85 ± 14.23 mm Hg vs. 42.99 ± 11.94 mm Hg; P = 0.028) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) (12.18 (9.80; 15.33) mm Hg vs. 8.92 (7.62; 10.50) mm Hg; P = 0.005) than patients with AF without signs of CHF, indicating more pronounced pulmonary hypertension and a more significant increase in left atrium pressure. AF patients with signs of CHF demonstrated significantly higher left ventricle end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), as evidenced by the parameters: E\E’ medial (9.87 ± 5.24 vs. 6.15 ± 1.39; P = 0.001), E/E’ mean (8.38 ± 4.21 vs. 6.06 ± 1.97; P = 0.005), e’ medial (9.96 ± 3.79 cm/s vs. 12.81 ± 3.60 cm/s; P = 0.004). AF patients with signs of CHF had decreased LV EF (55.58 ± 14.65 % vs. 65.44 ± 10.87 %; P = 0.006), systolic velocity of the medial fibrous ring of the mitral valve S (6.92 ± 2.41 cm/s vs. 8.40 ± 2.03 cm/s; P = 0.015), and significantly higher values of TEI RV (0.58 ± 0.16 c. u. vs. 0.48 ± 0.11 c. u.; P = 0.011), but decreased TAPSE values (16.22 ± 4.60 mm vs. 19.54 ± 5.00 mm; P = 0.067), indicating more pronounced systolic dysfunction of both ventricles.
Conclusions. Comorbidity of CHF and AF in patients is accompanied by the increased percentage of eccentric hypertrophy (49 %; P = 0.027), more pronounced systolic dysfunction of the left and right ventricles, increased LVEDP, PCWP, systolic pressure in the pulmonary artery, dilation of the inferior vena cava.
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